Network :Important things to know for handling “The Oracle network infrastructure”

Network bandwidthAmount of traffic that the network can actually transport
Network latencytime taken between and through network devices
LANLocal Area Networking
Ethernet TopologiesBus topology
Basic star topology LAN
Token Ring
Token Ring Topology
FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface)
Switches Used to link several separate LANs.Switch packets between multiple LANs as needed
Internetworking devicesHubs (concentrators)
WANWide Area Network
Wide Area Network TopologiesFrame relay
Integrated Services Digital Network  (ISDN)
Leased line
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Measuring LatencyUse ping  to find the PMTU between systems
PMTUPath Maximum Transmission Unit
pingping -f -n <number of pings> -l <size> <destination IP address>
Helps verify IP-level connectivity
Used to send an ICMP echo to a target name or IP address
ping -? shows command-line options available
NetstatDisplays protocol statistics About current TCP/IP connections
Can be used with various options
netstat -a displays all connections
netstat -r displays the route table, plus active connections
netstat -e displays Ethernet statistics (may be combined with the -s option)
netstat -s displays protocol statistics
netstat -n does not convert addresses and port numbers to names
Ipconfigprint TCP/IP related host  configuration
TracertDetermines the route between hosts (Optimal)
RouteView or modify the route table
tnsnames.oraTNSNAMES.ORA is a SQL*Net configuration file that defines databases addresses for establishing connections to them. This file normally resides in the ORACLE HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN directory
sqlnet.oraSqlnet.ora is a text file that provides SQL*Net with basic configuration details like tracing options, default domain, encryption, etc. This file can be found in the ORACLE HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN directory
Listener.oraListener.ora is a SQL*Net configuration file used to configure Oracle Database Listeners (required to accept remote connection requests).
This file normally resides in the ORACLE HOME\NETWORK\ADMIN directory or in the directory define by the $TNS_ADMIN variable.
TAFTAF (Transparent Application Failover) is a configuration that allows session fail-over between different nodes of a RAC database cluster
TAF only works for idle sessions and SELECT statements
tnspingTNSPING is a utility in the ORACLE HOME/bin directory used to test if a SQL*Net connect string can connect to a remote listener (check if the socket is reachable).
Connect StringA connect string is a string used to identify and connect to a remote database. Connect strings are defined in a local TNSNAMES.ORA file, Oracle Names Server or OID directory
LDAPLDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is an application protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP
ldap.oraThe ldap.ora configuration file sets the LDAP properties
SQL*NetSQL*Net (or Net8) is Oracle's networking software that allows remote data-access between programs and the Oracle Database, or among multiple Oracle Databases
CMAN.oraCMAN.ORA is a text file containing settings for the SQL*Net Connection Manager (CM)
TNS_ADMINTNS_ADMIN is an environment variable that points to the directory where the SQL*Net configuration files (like sqlnet.ora and tnsnames.ora) are located
TWO_TASKTWO_TASK is an environment variable used to specify that connections should be made to a remote database (via SQL*Net) without specifying a service name (tnsnames.ora entry).
HOST STRINGA host string is the name you assign for TNS connectivity in tnsnames.ora

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